Kutluhan Aktar
Published © CC BY

Autonomous (LIDAR) Litter Detection Robot w/ Edge Impulse

Recognize and monitor litter with object detection via this self-driving robot. It also deploys a video stream and a fall detection system.

ExpertFull instructions provided6 hours2,397

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
×1
DFRobot RPLIDAR A1M8-R6 - 360 Degree Laser Scanner
×1
Black Gladiator - Tracked Robot Chassis
DFRobot Black Gladiator - Tracked Robot Chassis
×1
USB Webcam
×1
L298N Motor Driver Module
×1
Arduino Nano R3
Arduino Nano R3
×1
DFRobot Serial 6-Axis Accelerometer
×1
SSD1306 OLED 128x32
×1
Buzzer
Buzzer
×1
USB Buck-Boost Converter Board
×1
DFRobot 8.9' 1920x1200 IPS Touch Display
×1
Xiaomi 20000 mAh 3 Pro Type-C Power Bank
×1
Male-Female Brass Hex PCB Spacer Standoff
×20
SparkFun Solder-able Breadboard - Mini
SparkFun Solder-able Breadboard - Mini
×2
Jumper wires (generic)
Jumper wires (generic)
×1

Software apps and online services

Edge Impulse Studio
Edge Impulse Studio
Raspbian
Raspberry Pi Raspbian
Thonny
Arduino IDE
Arduino IDE

Hand tools and fabrication machines

Hot glue gun (generic)
Hot glue gun (generic)

Story

Read more

Custom parts and enclosures

Fritzing

Schematics

Connections

Code

LIDAR_Litter_Detection_Robot.py

Python
# LIDAR Litter Detection Robot w/ Edge Impulse

# Raspberry Pi 4

# By Kutluhan Aktar

# Recognize and monitor litter with object detection via this self-driving robot.
# It also deploys a video stream and a fall detection system.

# For more information:
# https://www.theamplituhedron.com/projects/Autonomous_(LIDAR)_Litter_Detection_Robot_w_Edge_Impulse/

from adafruit_rplidar import RPLidar
from math import floor
import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
from time import sleep

# Create the Litter Detection Robot class with the required settings:
class Litter_Detection_Robot:
    def __init__(self, mot_pin_1, mot_pin_2, mot_pin_3, mot_pin_4, mot_pin_5, mot_pin_6):
        # Setup the RPLidar:
        PORT_NAME = '/dev/ttyUSB0'
        self.lidar = RPLidar(None, PORT_NAME, timeout=30)
        self.con_scan = True
        # Define the L298N motor driver board pins:
        self.in_1_1 = mot_pin_1
        self.in_1_2 = mot_pin_2
        self.en_1 = mot_pin_3
        self.in_2_1 = mot_pin_4
        self.in_2_2 = mot_pin_5
        self.en_2 = mot_pin_6
        # Set GPIO mode:
        GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
    # Get information from the RPLidar:
    def get_data_from_LIDAR(self):
        # Record the data generated by the RPLidar.
        if(self.con_scan):
            try:
                print(self.lidar.info)
                for scan in self.lidar.iter_scans():
                    self.scan_data = [0]*360
                    for (_, angle, distance) in scan:
                        self.scan_data[min([359, floor(angle)])] = distance
                    self.process_lidar_data(60, 120, 240, 300, 340, 20)
            except KeyboardInterrupt:
                self.con_scan = False
                print("\nLIDAR Stopped!")
                self.lidar.stop()
                self.lidar.disconnect()
                GPIO.cleanup()
    # Process the data generated by the RPLidar to control the robot chassis.
    def process_lidar_data(self, r_ang_s, r_ang_e, l_ang_s, l_ang_e, f_ang_s, f_ang_e, t=400, _range=16):
        # Object Distance:
        r_start = r_end = l_start = l_end = f_start = f_end = 3000
        # Debugging the data generated by the RPLidar:
        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = r_ang_s + i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                r_start = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Right Dis. Start = " + str(r_start))
                break
        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = r_ang_e - i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                r_end = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Right Dis. End = " + str(r_end))
                break
            
        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = l_ang_s + i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                l_start = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Left Dis. Start = " + str(l_start))
                break
        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = l_ang_e - i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                l_end = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Left Dis. End = " + str(l_end))
                break

        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = f_ang_s + i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                f_start = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Front Dis. Start = " + str(f_start))
                break
        for i in range(_range):
            _angle = f_ang_e - i
            if(self.scan_data[_angle] > 1):
                f_end = self.scan_data[_angle]
                #print("Front Dis. End = " + str(f_end))
                break
            
        # Control the robot chassis according to the debugged distance values:
        if((r_start < t) and (r_end < t)):
            print("\nStop!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("stop")
            sleep(0.5)
            print("Right!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("left", speed="moderate")
            sleep(1)
            print("Go!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("forward", speed="low")
        if((l_start < t) and (l_end < t)):
            print("\nStop!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("stop")
            sleep(0.5)
            print("Left!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("right", speed="moderate")
            sleep(1)
            print("Go!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("forward", speed="low")
        if((f_start < t) and (f_end < t)):
            print("\nStop!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("stop")
            sleep(0.5)
            print("Front!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("turn", speed="moderate")
            sleep(1)
            print("Go!")
            self.robot_chassis_controls("forward", speed="low")
            

    # Initiate the robot chassis:
    def robot_chassis_init(self):
        # Define the motor driver pin settings:
        GPIO.setup(self.in_1_1, GPIO.OUT)
        GPIO.setup(self.in_1_2, GPIO.OUT)
        GPIO.setup(self.en_1, GPIO.OUT)
        GPIO.setup(self.in_2_1, GPIO.OUT)
        GPIO.setup(self.in_2_2, GPIO.OUT)
        GPIO.setup(self.en_2, GPIO.OUT)
        # Default:
        GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.HIGH)
        GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.LOW)
        GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.HIGH)
        GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)
        self.s_1 = GPIO.PWM(self.en_1, 100)
        self.s_1.start(25)
        self.s_2 = GPIO.PWM(self.en_2, 100)
        self.s_2.start(25)
    # Control the robot chassis: 
    def robot_chassis_controls(self, command, speed="default"):
        # Directions:
        if(command == "forward"):
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)
        elif(command == "left"):
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)       
        elif(command == "right"):
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)
        elif(command == "turn"):
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.HIGH)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)
        elif(command == "stop"):
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_1, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_1_2, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_1, GPIO.LOW)
            GPIO.output(self.in_2_2, GPIO.LOW)
        # Speed:
        if(speed == "low"):
            self.s_1.ChangeDutyCycle(25)
            self.s_2.ChangeDutyCycle(25)
        elif(speed == "normal"):
            self.s_1.ChangeDutyCycle(50)
            self.s_2.ChangeDutyCycle(50)                
        elif(speed == "moderate"):
            self.s_1.ChangeDutyCycle(75)
            self.s_2.ChangeDutyCycle(75)                
        elif(speed == "high"):
            self.s_1.ChangeDutyCycle(90)
            self.s_2.ChangeDutyCycle(90)       
        

# Define a new class object named 'robot':
robot = Litter_Detection_Robot(17, 27, 22, 10, 9, 11)
robot.robot_chassis_init()

while True:
    robot.get_data_from_LIDAR()

lidar_litter_detection_robot_accelerometer.ino

Arduino
         /////////////////////////////////////////////  
        //      LIDAR Litter Detection Robot       //
       //             w/ Edge Impulse             //
      //             ---------------             //
     //              (Arduino Nano)             //           
    //             by Kutluhan Aktar           // 
   //                                         //
  /////////////////////////////////////////////

//
// Recognize and monitor litter with object detection via this self-driving robot. It also deploys a video stream and a fall detection system.
//
// For more information:
// https://www.theamplituhedron.com/projects/Autonomous_(LIDAR)_Litter_Detection_Robot_w_Edge_Impulse/
//
//
// Connections
// Arduino Nano :  
//                                DFRobot Serial 6-Axis Accelerometer
// D11 --------------------------- TX 
// D12 --------------------------- RX
//                                SSD1306 OLED 128x32
// A4  --------------------------- SDA
// A5  --------------------------- SCL    
//                                Buzzer
// D10 --------------------------- S

// Include the required libraries.
#include <DFRobot_WT61PC.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

// Initiate the software serial port. RX11 TX12
SoftwareSerial mySerial(11, 12);

// Define the Serial 6-Axis Accelerometer.
DFRobot_WT61PC accelerometer(&mySerial);

// Define the SSD1306 screen settings:
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 32 // OLED display height, in pixels
#define OLED_RESET    -1 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)

Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);

// Define monochrome graphics:
static const unsigned char PROGMEM _speed [] = {
0x00, 0x7E, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0x80, 0x07, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x0F, 0x99, 0xF0, 0x1E, 0x18, 0x78, 0x3C,
0x18, 0x3C, 0x3E, 0x00, 0x7C, 0x76, 0x00, 0xEE, 0x72, 0x00, 0x0E, 0x60, 0x01, 0x06, 0xE0, 0x07,
0x07, 0xE0, 0x1E, 0x07, 0xE0, 0x3E, 0x07, 0xF8, 0x26, 0x1F, 0xF8, 0x3C, 0x1F, 0xC0, 0x18, 0x03,
0xE0, 0x00, 0x07, 0x60, 0x00, 0x06, 0x60, 0x00, 0x06, 0x73, 0x00, 0xCE, 0x3E, 0x00, 0x7C, 0x3C,
0x00, 0x7C, 0x1C, 0x00, 0x38, 0x08, 0x00, 0x10, 
};

// Define the buzzer pin.
#define buzzer 10

void setup(){
  mySerial.begin(9600);
  
  // Revise the data output frequency of the accelerometer: FREQUENCY_0_1HZ for 0.1Hz, FREQUENCY_0_5HZ for 0.5Hz, FREQUENCY_1HZ for 1Hz, FREQUENCY_2HZ for 2Hz, FREQUENCY_5HZ for 5Hz, FREQUENCY_10HZ for 10Hz, FREQUENCY_20HZ for 20Hz, FREQUENCY_50HZ for 50Hz, FREQUENCY_100HZ for 100Hz, FREQUENCY_125HZ for 125Hz, FREQUENCY_200HZ for 200Hz.
  accelerometer.modifyFrequency(FREQUENCY_10HZ);

  // Initialize the SSD1306 screen:
  display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C);
  display.display();
  delay(1000);
}


void loop(){
  if(accelerometer.available()){
    // Print the acceleration information of the X, Y, and Z-axis.
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.drawBitmap(100, 6, _speed, 24, 24, SSD1306_WHITE);                                  
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.setCursor(0,0);                              
    display.setTextColor(SSD1306_WHITE);      
    display.print("X: ");
    display.print(accelerometer.Acc.X);
    display.print(" Y: ");
    display.println(accelerometer.Acc.Y);
    display.print("\nZ: ");
    display.print(accelerometer.Acc.Z);
    display.display();

    // Activate the buzzer depending on the angle information of the X, Y, Z-axis.
    if(accelerometer.Angle.X < -50 || accelerometer.Angle.Y < -50 /*|| accelerometer.Angle.Z < -160*/){
      tone(buzzer, 500);
      delay(250);
    }else{
      noTone(buzzer);
    }
  }
}

Credits

Kutluhan Aktar

Kutluhan Aktar

51 projects • 127 followers
Self-Taught Full Stack Developer | Programmer | Maker | Physics Enthusiast

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